Welcome to Upper Country, a journal of the Lake Superior region. This site has been developed to support and promote the journal, Upper Country, published by the Center for Upper Peninsula Studies at Northern Michigan University. Here are some links to the work of the Center:

The Upper Country Journal can be found here in several PDF files in the posts by Ted Bays.

LS&I Ore Dock Centennial

by Ted Bays Wed, December 05 2012 09:24


The first reinforced concrete ore dock on the Great Lakes, it sits on a base of 9809 pilings of Oregon fir driven 20 feet into the lake bottom. A 9 foot thick cap of reinforced concrete tops the pilings, making a foundation that has endured 100 years of vibration from train engines and ore cars.

Longer ore docks (2300 ft.) in Duluth, MN, were built after the LS&I dock; an earlier (1909) steel dock in Two Harbors, MN, ended its working life 30 years ago. Over the past 100 years, the LS&I dock has loaded well over 400 million tons of ore for shipment. The pockets--200 of them, 100 each side--hold 250 tons of ore each. Thus 50,000 tons of ore await loading into lake carriers.

The next issue of Upper Country will include a photo essay on the 1911-12 construction.

(photos:b&w: Superior View Studio; above, Tom Buchkoe.)